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# Grain Structure of Large Forgings

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## Grain Structure of Large Forgings

(OP)
Hi,

So I had a question relating to the grain structure that one would expect to see for large/thick forgings. This would be a cylinder shape that has thicknesses of around 7-8 inches and a diameter of 40 inches if this helps. I have heard from some companies that the longitudinal direction is in the "hoop" or radial direction of the cylinder, while others have said it is in the height/thickness of the cylinder forgings. The short transverse and long transverse can vary depending on who I am asking. Is there a general specification or knowledge that it is in one these directions? Any help would be appreciated.

### RE: Grain Structure of Large Forgings

There is a radial direction through the wall that might be the ST.
There is the circumferential direction (or hoop) that could be called LT.
And there is the axial or longitudinal direction parallel to the center line.
In a cylinder it is polar.
I would identify them by the cylinder parts (through wall) and not ST.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
P.E. Metallurgy, consulting work welcomed

### RE: Grain Structure of Large Forgings

The principal direction of working is known as the longitudinal direction. In your case, it is the long axis of the cylinder which you have referred to as height / thickness (7" - 8") in your post.

Two transverse directions are to be considered. One is the short transverse direction, the other is the long transverse direction. Both are perpendicular to each other as well as to the longitudinal direction. In your case, these are equal to the diameter (40") of the cylinder.

DHURJATI SEN

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