I have a question regarding the Beta(d) factor in chapter 10 of ACI (specifically, section 10.12.3). The code states that Beta(d) is the "ratio of the maximum factored sustained axial load to the maximum factored axial load". Can someone clarify what the "sustained axial load" is? In the 1989 code, the wording was "dead load", not "sustained load". Does this still hold true, or do sustained loads now include live loads?
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