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F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity
4

F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

(OP)
Dear Fellow Civil Structural Engineers,

I have to design a foundation for a tall vertical vessels. The anchor bolts designed by the Mechanical Engineers or Vessel Engineers are 2 3/4" diameter F1554 anchor bolts. I am new to this material and thus I need some help to verify if the calculations I did on the anchor bolts capacity are correct and can be used.

AISC Method: =================================================================
Using Section J3.7:
Rn = Fn .Ab
For Ultimate Strength:
where Fn =0.75Fu and for LRFD phi = 0.75
Thus, Rn = phi 0.75Fu Ab = 0.75(0.75)58(pi*2.75^2)/4 = 0.75(0.75)58(5.94) = 193.8 kips

For Allowable Stress Design:
Pa = 0.5(0.75)Ab(Fu) Pg 77 of Steel Design by Segui 5th ed
Pa = 0.5(0.75)(pi*2.75^2/4)(58) = 129.1 kips

As a comparison, the company standard table shows a capacity of 107 kips (Allowable)
The value of 107 kips is obtained as the following:

Rn = Fn Ab Eq. J3-1
Fn = 0.75 Fu
Rn = (0.75 * 58*4.93)/2 (Net tensile area)
Rn = 107.2 kips

I am not sure which is the correct value, the 129.1 kips or the 107.2 kips. I am leaning towards the 129.1 kips as that is based on academic research. The 107.2 kips value is more like based on internal colleague recommendations.

ACI Method: ===================================================================
phi*Nsa = phi*Ase,N *(futa) = 0.75*4.934 *(58 ksi)

Because F1554 Grade 36 is a ductile material, ACI 318-11 D.4.3 says phi = 0.75
phi Nsa = 0.75*4.93*48 = 214.5 kips

Thus, bolt capacity will be the minimum of 193.8 kips or 214.5 kips, for which 193.8 kips governs.

If some of you help to verify the calculations, I could furnish a tabulation of the anchor bolt capacities for the various diameters on here for everyone to use. After all, we need to combine our effort for the good of engineering community for which I believe is one of the purpose of this website. Thank you so much for your attention and effort.








RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Anchor bolts on vessels and tanks are usually sized more conservatively than ACI allows.
I would view the ACI capacity above as a check on the specified capacity.
It is not uncommon to specify a corrosion allowance on anchor bolts.
It is not uncommon to use 8-thread bolts in larger sizes, which will affect the area.
If I came up with 2-3/4" bolts, I would look at switching to a higher grade.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Can you see if you can use Grade 55S1? not the unweldable Grade 105, and maybe reduce the diameter a bit? Anchor rod strength and design if very straight forward... I would use the AISC (S16 in Canada) method and maybe check to see if there is a PIP equivalent.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

(OP)
Thank you so much for your time to reply this thread, especially on the weekend.

To go to a higher material grade, I would have to brief my manager on that move. Basically Grade 36 works. My intend is to come up with a consensus on how to calculate the capacity and then share the capacities with the group, for whomever needs them.

Could some of you share your thoughts on my approach? It would also benefit other engineers now that F1554 is becoming more and more common for anchor bolt material. Thank you so much in advance.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Use AISC ASD - A307 bolt, Fu = 60 ksi:

Ab = 3.1416(2.75^2)/4 = 5.94 in2
fa = 20 ksi
Fa = 20*5.94 = 118.8 kips

or, Fa = 0.33Fu*Ab = 0.33(6))(5.94 = 117.6 kips. <----- Governs.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

I don't like using A307 bolts for anchor rods. Their UTS is 60 ksi and F1554 is higher. Also unless you spec them as weldable, A307 doesn't have to be.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Quote (I would have to brief my manager on that move.)


I wouldn't normally involve anyone... if an issue, I'd simply advise them that I was using Grade 55S1. That would be the end of it. I design connections for fabricators, these days and often change the spec'd strength to F1554... I often see Grade 36 or A307 spec'd.
There is almost no cost going to the higher grade. For liability reasons, I include that the EOR confirm the use of... I don't want to 'own' the revision.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Quote (dik)

Their (A307) UTS is 60 ksi and F1554 is higher.

How much higher? Compared to F1554 grade 36.

F1554 is an ASTM specification for cast in place anchor bolts. It was established to clarify material properties for anchor rods used in concrete. Prior to it’s creation, concrete anchor bolts were most commonly specified using the generic round bar specification A36 or the headed hex bolt specification A307. The F1554 specification also qualifies two grades in addition to grade 36, grade 55 & grade 105.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

As attached:



75Ksi... I don't know what Grade 36 is, but the cost difference between the two grades is almost nothing.

For 36grade the lowest UTS is 58Ksi... I looked it up...



Quote (The F1554 specification also qualifies two grades in addition to grade 36, grade 55 & grade 105.)


I always spec Grade 55S1 so it's weldable... I've not used Grade 105. Even if Grade 36 is spec'd I stipulate the fabricator use Grade 55 with the EOR's approval... the added strength is almost free.

...and I never have used ASD for steel, always have used limit states, for over 50 years. Only for the first couple of years did I use Working Stress for concrete. Our steel and concrete courses at the time were all limit state; we were the first year to use them exclusively... back about '65.



Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

2 3/4" seems rather large, and I design highway bridges and high mast lighting towers. If you haven't already, you may want to confirm the availability of anchor bolts in that size. All of our biggest (1 3/4") anchor bolts (rods, actually) are F1554 grade 105.

Rod Smith, P.E., The artist formerly known as HotRod10

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Quote (All of our biggest (1 3/4") anchor bolts (rods, actually))


Thanks, Rod... I've been using headed anchor rods for over 2 decades, and haven't looked back. I think 1-1/4" is the largest I've ever used, other than some Dywidag threadbars... and other than those, never high strength. With the Grade 105, you may be able to reduce the anchor rods to the size you are accustomed to. 125 Ksi is twice the UTS of the Grade 36.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Quote:

I've been using headed anchor rods for over 2 decades, and haven't looked back.

We use the headed anchor rods for traffic railing anchorages; those are 7/8". For the big ones on the high mast lighting towers and large traffic signal structures, we use anchor rods threaded on both ends, with a steel ring at the bottom (nuts above and below the ring). At the top, we have leveling nuts and top nuts. The final torque on the top nuts is about 6000 ft-lbs. The hydraulic wrench they use for that is a beast.

Rod Smith, P.E., The artist formerly known as HotRod10

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Much bigger than the stuff I've done... Other than a couple of small pedestrian bridges and a snowmobile bridge, I've never done a bridge.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

@bridgesmith,

I've seen 3" dia. column anchor bolts at the steel mill, I don't know the grade though.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

I'm sure they're made, being available in the location where they will be needed, within a reasonable timeframe and at a reasonable price, is the question of interest, or at least I think it would be.

Rod Smith, P.E., The artist formerly known as HotRod10

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

OP, you should re-size them using Grade 55S1 to see what you need and compare the two results.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Couple comments.

As BridgeSmith noted, confirm the availability of the anchor in the size AND grade the vessel guys are telling you to use. If you are in a seismic zone and require a ductile failure mechanism, designing anchor reinforcing for a 2 3/4" gr 105 rod will be challenging.

Dik, part of the issue with changing the material/size of the anchor is the equipment manufacturer if a critical piece in this puzzle. They can use any grade of anchor you want, but if they are fabricating the vessel it may be too late to change the diameter.

On tall vessels the anchor grade/size is really something you need to get in front of. I designed a vessel foundation (80' tall/4' diameter) and designed the foundation using F1554 Gr. 36 rods. Just prior to my foundation IFC drawings a reviewer required I change the anchors to Gr. 105. I was locked into the diameter because the vessel drawings had been released for fabrication. My anchor reinforcing consisted of #11 bars to meet the ductile failure requirements of ACI.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

The OP simply is asking to validate his assessment, not looking for ideas.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

I could not read the previous posts and hope my respond will not be repeat one of them.

Quote (structure_engineer (
... The anchor bolts designed by the Mechanical Engineers or Vessel Engineers are 2 3/4" diameter F1554 anchor bolts. I am new to this material and thus I need some help to verify if the calculations I did on the anchor bolts capacity are correct and can be used.)


- ASTM F1554 is not a material specification,it is an anchor bolt manufacturing specification. There are three materials , ASTM A36/A36M
for low str. requirements , Grade 55 rods for moderate strength requirements, and Grade 105 rods for high-strength requirements...

- ASME ( vessel code ) and API 650,620 uses WSD and the anchor bolts designed by Vessel Engineers ..

- The nominal size of the anchor bolts can be up to 4 in and 2 3/4" diameter is moderate size..

- ASME and API uses effective area ( or root area ) rother than gross area of the anchor rod. The effective area ( Ase= Π/4*(da - 0.9743/nt) nt is , no. of threads per inch. When you look to the following doc. The stress area is 4.93 in**2 for 2.75 in for nom. size..

My suggestion will be, ask the design loads ( wind, seismic, operation, test , empty ..) then design the foundation acc. to requirements of ACI 318 .. and no need to questioning the size of the anchor rods. Or you may prefer to provide more info. to get more specific responds..

My opinion..

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

(OP)
Hello Fellow Engineers,

I did confirm the 2 3/4" diameter anchor bolt is available. But due to the diameter, a forged head is not available. They could make it both ends threaded and a nut could be tag welded to the bottom of the anchor bolt. I have a quote and just sent back the email asking for the cost for F1554 Grade 36 bolts. The use of higher grade were discussed with the other design engineer. In fact we had agreed on using the higher grade. If the quote comes back with no cost addition it is a no brainer to go with Grade 55.

However, we still have to show in our calculation the actual bolt capacity. And that is the intend of this thread. Could any one of you run some numbers, check my calculations? Your support and attention is much appreciated. At the end of the thread, I could post a table showing the various sizes and the various grades of anchor bolts for F1554.thumbsup2

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

(OP)
My own post:

At the end of the thread, I could post a table showing the various sizes and the various grades of anchor bolts for F1554.thumbsup2

Correction: At the end of the thread, I could post a table showing the capacities of the various sizes and the various grades of anchor bolts for ASTM F1554 anchor rods.thumbsup2

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

structure_engineer,

the following is from this thread507-459508: Different Anchor Rod Tensile Strength between ACI 318 method and AISC method:

"As noted in Design Guide 1, AISC utilizes a simplified method that utilizes a modifying factor that relates the tensile stress area directly to the unthreaded area (0.75). As is typical, the simplified process is more conservative than the use of the equation to find the actual effective area of the bolt.

The reason that the simplified method gets more conservative with the large diameter bolts is that once you get to a 2-1/2" diameter bolt, the threads per inch no longer continue to decrease, they stay at 4 threads per inch up to a 4" diameter. The depth of the threads is directly related to the threads per inch (see table 7-17). So as the anchor diameters increase up to 2-1/2" the depth of the threads also increase. However, above 2-1/2" the depth of the threads remain constant, so the percentage of the effective area to the gross area continues to increase for each diameter larger than 2-1/2". The simplified AISC method does not take this into account as it uses a straight 75% factor."

*The reference above to table 7-17 is referring to the AISC Steel Construction Manual.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

HTURKAK:

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Quote (Dik, part of the issue with changing the material/size of the anchor is the equipment manufacturer if a critical piece in this puzzle. They can use any grade of anchor you want, but if they are fabricating the vessel it may be too late to change the diameter.)


Thanks Rabbit, I hadn't considered that.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

(OP)
I have read through the thread and here is what I came up, for 2 3/4" diameter and 3" diameter:

For 2 3/4" Diameter F1554 Grade 36 Anchor Rods:


For 3" diameter F1554 Grade 36 Anchor Rods:
The capacities for the 3" diameter F1554 Grade 36 Anchor Rods agrees with this thread:
thread507-459508: Different Anchor Rod Tensile Strength between ACI 318 method and AISC method: Different Anchor Rod Tensile Strength between ACI 318 method and AISC method:

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

...and for the 2-3/4 bolts using Grade 55 you end up with 251K and 277K in lieu of 194 and 214... an extra 50K 'for almost free'.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

PIP should have guides how to design vertical vessel foundation including anchor bolts. It may consider rebars in the capacity which you are not considering. Did you do the wind load or it came from the vendor? Did you check if the vertical vessel if rigid?

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

The result from LRFD methods corresponded well with the result from ASD, 194/118 = 1.64.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

(OP)
Just obtained the confirmation from a major bolt supplier for these 2 3/4" diameter F1554 anchor rods. The cost difference between 12 numbers of F1554 Grade 36 and F1554 Grade 55 anchor rods is $69.24. So it is a very easy decision to make. There is even no need to go up the chain of commands. Thanks very much Mr. dik for the information and the industry "trade secret." And I have the validation of the method of arriving at the anchor rod capacities. Thanks very much guys. This board is a great resource of information. Hopefully we can keep up the brainstorming sessions and keep the jobs local instead of 8990 miles away wink, through automation and exchange of ideas. Keep on trucking guys.cheers

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

If using a higher grade for the same load, the thing you need to watch out for is the failure mode could be brittle unless the bolt size is reduced as well.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

(OP)
Definition from ACI 318-14, posted here and hopefully not a violation of copyright:

steel element, ductile—element with a tensile test elonga-tion
of at least 14 percent and reduction in area of at least 30
percent; steel element meeting the requirements of ASTM
A307 shall be considered ductile; except as modified by
for earthquake effects, deformed reinforcing bars meeting
the requirements of ASTM A615, A706, or A955 shall be
considered as ductile steel elements.

Thus, F1554 Grade 55 is still considered a ductile material. But correct me if I am wrong.

I have a question for you, Mr. le99: how did you arrive at the 118 kips capacity for ASD? Could you share the calculations?

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

The ductile failure mechanism needs to consider concrete failure modes as well. Basically, steel yielding needs to be the controlling limit state to satisfy that particular section of the code. There are other ways to satisfy the code such as using the over-strength factor. This is all related to seismic forces and not wind however.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

@Rabbit12 said clearly of my concern.

Quote (le99)

Great post!

Report
le99 (Civil/Environmental)8 May 22 21:21
Use AISC ASD - A307 bolt, Fu = 60 ksi:

Ab = 3.1416(2.75^2)/4 = 5.94 in2
fa = 20 ksi
Fa = 20*5.94 = 118.8 kips

or, Fa = 0.33Fu*Ab = 0.33(6))(5.94 = 117.6 kips. <----- Governs.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Elongation of F1554 is better than A307...



Quote (The cost difference between 12 numbers of F1554 Grade 36 and F1554 Grade 55 anchor rods is $69.24.)


That's been my experience... $5 per rod... If you need the anchorage to yield at a lower strength, you can likely reduce the diameter by 1/2"...

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

dik,

Not to argue which is better, but mind you that the grade should be indicated when specifying F1554.

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

Always... and I spec Grade 55S1 all the time... I want it weldable, too.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

MR.DIK,




Apparently this snap taken from the web ,
https://boltport.com/specifications/astm-f1554/

Probably it would be better to look the scope of the Standard Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi Yield Strength ASTM F1554 ..

1. Scope*
1.1 This specification covers straight and bent, headed and headless, carbon, carbon boron, alloy, or high-strength lowalloy
steel anchor bolts (also known as anchor rods). The anchor bolts are furnished in three strength grades, two thread
classes, and in the sizes specified in Section 4......




RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

(OP)
Mr. HTURKAK,

In response to your quote:

"My suggestion will be, ask the design loads ( wind, seismic, operation, test , empty ..) then design the foundation acc. to requirements of ACI 318 .. and no need to questioning the size of the anchor rods. Or you may prefer to provide more info. to get more specific responds.."

That is what we are doing here, to design the anchor rods and foundation to support this tall vertical vessel. First of all, we have to check if the anchor bolts as specified by the ME is good or not. As for some of the suggestion to use a smaller anchor bolts, the lead time to procure the vertical vessel is a long lead time and making changes at this stage will take a lot of effort to make that happen. Then after we verify the anchor bolt size is good, we will then design the pedestals and pile cap to support the foundation loads. In this case, most probably I will have to use two rings of dowels of #7 or bigger, on the outside and inside of the anchor rods to hold the vessel down as the pull out force from each rod is just way too high. The dowels will be hooked into the pile cap.

Thank you all for your time in the response and attention to this thread. I am working on that table...


RE: F1554 Grade 36, 2 3/4" Diameter Anchor Bolt Capacity

HTURKAK... I was going by the contents of the specification... it seems to be somewhat material related, including chemistry...

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Do you feel any better?

-Dik

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