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Arc Stud Welding

Arc Stud Welding

Arc Stud Welding

(OP)
I noticed that stud manufacturers don’t recommend vertical welding for studs larger than 5/8 or 3/4” diameter yet they have no objections to an overhead weld for the same diameter. To me, a vertical weld is easier than overhead.

I asked two colleagues on the fabrication side if they knew why but neither was aware of this.

I was wondering if anyone could provide some insight.

Thanks

RE: Arc Stud Welding

Gravity.

"Everyone is entitled to their own opinions, but they are not entitled to their own facts."

RE: Arc Stud Welding

That's a lot of liquid metal for those sizes.

The small ones use a ceramic cup to retain the metal and form a shoulder; not sure what they do with the sizes you are looking at, but even with the ceramic cup there are vent holes all around to relieve the heated gases that the shoulder material will soon occupy - I wonder if those same holes in a large size would allow the liquified portion of the stud to leak out in an unpleasant manner.

Overhead, the cup retains the material and straight down the metal has symmetric loading.

RE: Arc Stud Welding

I have seen a LOT of those studs being welded installed, from M5 all the way to the larger sizes for steel/concrete constructions (with M20 being a very common size, which is comparable to 3/4"), and I have never seen any other position than PA (1G ?).
I wouldn't like to shoot them overhead, there are quite some projections flying in all directions, with you as the primary target.
I imagine PC (2G ?) position will suffer from asymmetric welds, possibly fusion-related or incompetely filled weld problems at the top, as IM suggests.

RE: Arc Stud Welding

(OP)
Thanks everyone for your responses. Forgot about gravity. AWS doesn't have any prohibitions and is somewhat vague about the testing requirements for the larger sizes.

3DDave - your observations about the ferrule make sense regarding overhead vs vertical.

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