## Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

(OP)

A contractor has provided construction joint at the location in Raft construction where the shear and moment is maximum at that location. So, any one does have any solution how can it be verified, if this construction joint is feasible or it needs rehabilitation?

By considering shear friction design based on ACI-318-19 sect. 22.9, the bottom steel is not enough to resist the applied shear demand coming at the location of construction joint. The demand value of shear is shown in the figure below

The design section detail is provided in the the section F1-F1

The Calculations are shown below, as the surface of the joint is not roughened intentionally rather it is smooth, so mu= 0.6,

By only considering the Bottom steel (in Tension), the shear friction capacity is not enough to resist the demand,

and i don't think that the top steel is contributing to shear friction. phi Vn < Vu not OK

Malang_wazir

By considering shear friction design based on ACI-318-19 sect. 22.9, the bottom steel is not enough to resist the applied shear demand coming at the location of construction joint. The demand value of shear is shown in the figure below

The design section detail is provided in the the section F1-F1

The Calculations are shown below, as the surface of the joint is not roughened intentionally rather it is smooth, so mu= 0.6,

By only considering the Bottom steel (in Tension), the shear friction capacity is not enough to resist the demand,

and i don't think that the top steel is contributing to shear friction. phi Vn < Vu not OK

Malang_wazir

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

@r13yes it is Slab on Grade (SOG), Can you elaborate why?For your information, these columns are heavily loaded, to reduce the punching shear in the raft integral beams are provided and if construction joint is provide between the columns at the expansion joint, so won't it be critical?

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

2) You are quite conservative on shear friction calculation, by consider the bottom steel only.

3) We don't rely on the shear strength produced by compression on concrete above the neutral axis, but it does exist, though subject to scrutiny.

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

@r13as if you review the research paper of ACI Journal by Mattock and Birkland, The Shear Friction capacity is produced because of the rough surface which causes tension in the steel after separation between the faces caused by the shear at the crack. However in ACI 318 it is not clearly mentioned to use the compression steel as well in shear friction. Moreover shear is applied on the steel won't it produce additional stress in the tension steel as it has already reached to its yield capacity due to flexure.REFERENCES:Shear Transfer in Reinforced Concrete-Recent Research Alan H. Mattock and Hawkins 1972

Connections in Precast Concrete Construction by Philip W. Birkeland and H. W. Birkeland 1966

Wazir_Malang

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

The CJ location provided by the contactor is not reasonable.. The expected location of CJ is at a distance L /4 ( L is the span)... However, your approach is also not reasonable..

Apparently the shear V= 413 kips at just under the column axis 6. The CJ provided between two columns and the shear which will be experienced by CJ should be less than 413 and would be around zero if the column loads are similar.

Moreover, say your figure is correct, what is the reason for checking shear friction for 1 ft width ? if d=54 in. you may check for a width 3d.

The one way shear is checked at a distance (d) from the column face and for two way shear at a distance d/2.

Does this respond answer to your question? If not, you may perform the mat analysis with more refined mesh and check the shear friction for a width say 3d .

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

Share the same thought here. For example,

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

@HTURKAKAs I am not sure about how much width of strip should be considered for acting as a unit, so conservatively 3ft strip width is considered to act as a unit, if you have a proper reference for it's consideration, I would be glade to know.@HTURKAKThere is no concept of one way or two shear here, as in that case we have a monolithic RC section and our most possible failure in one way or two way @45deg, depends on distribution of loads.But Here it is a predefined crack at which shearing off the two opposite concrete faces is very much possible to occur at that location.

Dear,

r13and@HTURKAKThe way you visualized the load distribution is quite good but more like for a rigid system and i don't think it clearly represent my problem, However the problem is that it is SOG(Slab on Grade) as in the figure below, the shear caused by these vertical loads will definitely make it zero but not in between the columns while it will be much away from the columns, as actual distribution of shear force is shown in the below figure and from the CSI SAFE Results## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

The sectional strength of RC members are calculated as per ACI 318 22.5 ,( for 318-14, section 22.). You may use the analogy of flat slab. Remember the width for beam and column strips. In this case you may assume the width conservatively 0.25L.

I disagree with you ..you are expected to check one way and two way ( punching shear ). What is the difference of axes A-5,6 ? while at the other axis (5,6,7..) the shear is around zero?.. Check the input data specially column loads ..

Good luck..

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

Vn = µF + µAs(bot)fy

can fulfil the demand shear Vu.

But the confusion is that the bottom steel is already at yielding due to moment so can it take additional stresses due to the shear? if no then we are only left with the µF as causing the shear friction.

While, I am thinking why do we need to provide integral beams below columns, if the shear friction capacity is enough to resist the axial loads on columns?

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

2) The use of shear friction is to be avoid for its uncertain natures. You will not find any literature that discuss shear friction for flexural members, but I explained before, on why we are looking into it.

3) The question on utilizing the bottom steel is a good one, to which the answer would be negative.

So the verdict is the beam requires rehabilitation/strengthening. But before jumping off the train, I suggest to relief the vertical restrain of the joint, if your program allows you to do so, to see the effect of this change. Note that the increase in bearing is anticipated, and it is acceptable if kept within a factor of 1.5.

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

@r13for Strengthening epoxy will be used at the construction joint? do you have any suggestion which epoxy should be used?## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

@hokie66, Thank you for your response. In case of construction won't it be good to provide key at L/3 (where minimum V and BM) with a key and not in the middle as there is max BM in middle?You are suggesting to provide key of this type? is the key would be a little odd if extra dowel bars are not provided in the middle?

As the mat foundation thickness is 54" so won't the shear key shown in the figure below, more suitable, to have a more roughness and all that without a dowel bar in the middle?

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

The sawtooth key can work, but is a lot of extra labor. I would just use a single key 18" deep, with some big deformed dowel bars central to the key.

Others will have different ideas, but that is the way I have detailed construction joints in mat foundations for many years.

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

Wasn't this mat has already done, with the second lift placed against an unprepared surface? Or it is still on the drawing board waiting to be constructed? I'm a little confused here. But as Hokie pointed out, the epoxy wouldn't do any good at this situation.

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Feel any better?

-Dik

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

@r13The second pour will be cast in a few days. hookie66, Do you know how the epoxy should be used then for proper joint between hardened concrete and fresh concrete to make?@dik Do you use extra dowel bars as well or just key is enough? any code reference for key dimension?

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

No need for epoxy or bonding compound. At best, they'll only seal the joint, but won't make it stronger; at worst, they'll weaken it for shear.

Rod Smith, P.E., The artist formerly known as HotRod10

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

@r13Can you provide additional information, how the dowels can be drilled and properly anchored? my concern is that concrete is strong and drilling is usually very difficult and while developing the steel would need deep drilling.For concrete Surface preparation for shear friction where applicable using

Guideline No.310.2R–2013-Selecting and Specifying Concrete Surface Preparation for Sealers, Coatings, Polymer Overlays, and Concrete Repairis the right procedure for achieving 1/4" amplitude surface roughness? to give µ(friction coefficient) = 1.0Concrete surface preparation methodfor 1/4" amplitude surface roughness, Concrete surface profile (CSP 10) is ok?## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

Rather than bond, you want to rely on mechanical shear transfer. The key and dowels should suffice at the point of minimal shear. If you want additional insurance, shot blast the surface as in your figure 6.3 or 6.5, and ensure the surface is clean of dust and contaminants.

As to the dowels, cast them in rather than drilling.

Shear friction? Not a concept I support.

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

I guess your concrete is in the 3000-5000 psi range, drilling shouldn't be a problem. You can use Hilti reinforcing dowels, with epoxy to provide the required strength. The development length is usually shorter than direct embedment because the greater bond strength.

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

If I am not mistaken the situation, half of the mat has been poured without proper joint preparation by the contractor (it wasn't a designated CJ). OP is worried about the shear force demand (138 kips) across the plane, as it is weakened by the unintended joint. Also, with high moment demand, the existing steel can't be accounted for shear friction. So the option now is to add key and dowels, one or both, to make up the deficit in shear.

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand

## RE: Construction Joint provided at location of Maximum shear and Moment's demand