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We need to procure SA312 TP 321 100 NB pipes. Customer asks for melting in electric furnace/vacuum furnace & refining by ESR/VAR. Quantum of material is miniature so we can not approach mill . We have to procure material from stockiest, test it & use if meets specification. Now we got TEST CERIFICATE from stockiest which doesn't mention about ESR/VAR.

Is there any way by which we can verify that material is refined by ESR/VAR. Pl. note that impurities like Sulphur, Phosphorus are meeting code limits of chemical composition.


Contact your supplier (or perhaps directly the mill) and ask them about details of the heat/melt?
Or, alternatively, include ESR/VAR as a requirement in the RfQ you send to your potential suppliers.


Both of the above techniques are proven to produce ultra-clean stainless steel or superalloys. Major state of art mills all over the world may have these facilities installed.
If this requirement is contractual requirement, it may be advisable to write to the mills directly, who in turn may guide to their stockists.
However it may not harm to ask the client :what's the technical rationale behind this requirement, the difficulties and go accordingly.

Pradip Goswami,P.Eng.IWE
Welding & Metallurgical Specialist


Thanks XL83NL (Mechanical)& pradipgoswami (Materials).

1.RFQ sent to suppliers calls for ESR/VAR. Suppliers (in this case stockiest) provide TCs available with them. They are least bothered about the requirement.
2.Our main problem is that we need material in small quantity. So I wonder whether mills would entertain us & write to stockiest.
3.We tried to obtain waive-off for this requirement. But could not succeed.

I would like to know, is there any test which could help us in proving that material is refined by ESR/VAR?


Hi 212197,
What's the intended application of this steel.
ASME SA 312 cross references ASME SA 450. According to SA-450:-

3. Process
3.1 The steel may be made by any process.
3.2 If a specific type of melting is required by the purchaser, it shall be as stated on the purchase order.
3.3 The primary melting may incorporate separate degassing or refining and may be followed by [highlight #FCE94F]secondary melting, such as electroslag remelting or vacuum-arc remelting] .If secondary melting is employed, the heat shall be defined as all of the ingots remelted from a single primary heat.

Thus ESR/VAR is an optional requirement. My understanding is that steel mill would incorporate this only when asked for in the PO. Major mills may have this facility as a part of their process line, but one need to find that from vendor shop audit. From my past experience of Stainless steel manufacturing mills AOD/VOD is very common , ESR/VAR would exist in the state of art mills only.
I would advice to send the query to the mill and directly or through the stockist and move from there.

Pradip Goswami,P.Eng.IWE
Welding & Metallurgical Specialist


Thanks Pradip Goswami Sir.


We now shall be carrying out inclusion rating test to ensure whether pipe refining was done by ESR route.

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