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# Solution to signal propagation on sea water

## Solution to signal propagation on sea water

(OP)
Hi
I have got few papers which do not exactly explain the theory but gives an equation for calculating the secondary correction factor

" Loran is retarded when travelling over sea water as opposed to through the atmosphere. When transmitted, part of the electromagentic wave is in air and some in earths surface (sea, land). Sea water is not as good a electrical conductor as air, so the signals are slowed as they travel over seawater."
(I didnt understand the last line....How? and is sea water less conductive than air)

This secondary correction factor is calculated from Harris polynomials.

SF = -0.01142 + 0.00176d + 0.510483/d for d < 100 miles
= -0.40758 + 0.00346776d + 24.0305/d for d > 100 miles

SF is the additional time to be added to the time calculated from d/c

National bureau of standards has  a set of generalized curves for incremental propagation time for propagation paths as a function of distance.
These curves are calculated from the above equations.

This is the best and the closest thing I have found for my question. I dont know if we can find this on internet.

I found this in the university library.

I hope this is helpful and if possible can someone explain
"Sea water is not as good a electrical conductor as air, so the signals are slowed as they travel over seawater."

### RE: Solution to signal propagation on sea water

I guess that they're saying that the pure vacuum of interstellar space (where men are men and C is C) is a really, really, really good conductor.

### RE: Solution to signal propagation on sea water

There is a 5.78% discontinuity in the Harris polynomials at 100 miles (where it switches from one formula to the other).

Probably close enough for government work.

### RE: Solution to signal propagation on sea water

This is the phenomena that affects ground wave propogation.  The propogation velocity is slowed by increasing dielectric constant/ permeability - same as light - so the plane wave front launched from the antenna propogates faster in the air than that part in the water/ground and the wave topples forward.

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