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Water System Hack
13

Water System Hack

Water System Hack

(OP)
Florida water supply system hacked. Chemical dosage modified to dangerous levels.
It is OK to monitor systems via Internet, but control via web-connected systems push the risk. Why are controls of critical infrastructure connected to the ^#%#$ internet? Should remote control of critical systems not be limited to private networks with an Internet air gap. IOT is starting to look more like I-DI-OT.

https://www.zdnet.com/article/hacker-modified-drin...

RE: Water System Hack

I think it's unlikely there was any real public health risk. The 'poison' was sodium hydroxide. I doubt that the levels were high enough to have any lasting health effects if it made it out of the plant, but I'm sure there is real-time monitoring and alarming to take place in the event of this kind of trouble. If it was someone who knew how to circumvent these layers of safety, then I'd say it had to be a disgruntled employee or ex employee. Either way, the culprit is likely to be identified quickly.

I do agree that internet-facing process equipment should be avoided whenever possible.

Brad Waybright

The more you know, the more you know you don't know.

RE: Water System Hack

(OP)
This time. Wait until they find the Cl2 gas, or control rods. Even if a possibility that it was a disgruntled former employee doesn't help. They have been known to be very dangerous, occasionally murderous, and probably more so than some random Internet nurd that usually just want to break into a system to prove that they can. Plus, disgruntled employees know the soft spots.

The problem with alarms are many and well documented. They are always sounding when something explodes.

RE: Water System Hack

Stuxnet breached an air gap, so that's no longer a solution by itself. Data diodes (allowing one way direction of data) also have limitations. Clearly they need to up their security, though.

RE: Water System Hack

(OP)
That makes me feel worm and cozy. Yeah. Something's gotta be done alright. If it can happen to them ...

RE: Water System Hack

Most utilities only have relatively smart programmers on the billing side. One wonders if the remote access has a strong password like "password." Organizations can be quite slow to change; even in the face of breeches, it's taken several years for our company to institute mandatory two factor authentication for internal systems.

TTFN (ta ta for now)
I can do absolutely anything. I'm an expert! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKorP55Aqvg
FAQ731-376: Eng-Tips.com Forum Policies forum1529: Translation Assistance for Engineers Entire Forum list http://www.eng-tips.com/forumlist.cfm

RE: Water System Hack

Note that the issue was ONLY caught because it happened directly in front of an operator, AND, it does not appear that the bad setting set off any alarms, since you would think they would have mentioned it, even if it wasn't true, to reinforce the notion that everything was safe.

TTFN (ta ta for now)
I can do absolutely anything. I'm an expert! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKorP55Aqvg
FAQ731-376: Eng-Tips.com Forum Policies forum1529: Translation Assistance for Engineers Entire Forum list http://www.eng-tips.com/forumlist.cfm

RE: Water System Hack

(OP)
I was thinking that too. I'll also just bet that it is simply the user's Win10 password, access authenticated via user category permission list, rather than a unique and specific password to access the control system that only a couple of people know. Hackers that gain access as administrators could rewrite the permission list to allow "everyone" and nobody needs to guess any more secure passwords after that.

And it makes me wonder how a supposedly dangerous setting would be accepted by the control software, especially without initiating an immediate alarm if such a value was entered. No data entry verification? Even my sim software alarms when I enter a pipe length that is obviously too long, too short, or a pressure that is obviously too high and the sim won't run until I change the values, or change the default limits.

RE: Water System Hack

Limits work both ways; we once had a cryocooling configuration for a sensor developed and was asked by some production guys what our secret sauce was; same company so naturally we showed them. Days later, they came back and told us that their systems were still failing, but it was because the systems got TOO cold. And, to top everything off, it turned our secret sauce was actually developed by an earlier set of production guys. It's likely that the operators they have aren't the brightest bulbs, so easy passwords, no two factor, and no setting limits, because the operators enter wrong values all the time, setting off alarms all the time that have to be explained to management.

TTFN (ta ta for now)
I can do absolutely anything. I'm an expert! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKorP55Aqvg
FAQ731-376: Eng-Tips.com Forum Policies forum1529: Translation Assistance for Engineers Entire Forum list http://www.eng-tips.com/forumlist.cfm

RE: Water System Hack

If you want to get someones attention by a hack; then change the setpoints.
If you want to really wreak havoc, silence or disable the alarms and limits, then change the setpoints.

Bill
--------------------
Ohm's law
Not just a good idea;
It's the LAW!

RE: Water System Hack

Our distributed system is a separate network isolated from the internet by firewall. Any access requires a firewall rule to allow it. Security accounts on the automation network are managed separately from widows accounts. As of yet, this architecture has proven to be secure.

I have on several occasions tried to point out that our business relies as heavily on our office network as it does on the automation systems. Assuming our ERP was compromised, we can't enter PO numbers, print bills of lading, pay employees, or anything.

If you're worried about a drinking water system being attacked, then just wait until someone successfully shuts down a large bank, Wall Street trading, or the like. That's when REAL chaos will ensue.

Brad Waybright

The more you know, the more you know you don't know.

RE: Water System Hack

2
Having walked many water plants small and large, the physical and network security systems are relatively lax. Where I live, very lax.
I am surprised that bad actors - the 1% of trouble-makers in our society - don't take better advantage of the collective bliss of public agencies.
Those damn thieves raise my water rates every 2 years, they can do better than a 6 ft chain link fence around treatment facilities and 4-digit passwords to the internet-lined SCADA system.
Seems like basic common sense standards are rarely improved unless something very bad happens. Then there's a predictable over-reaction. Human nature, I guess.
Society won't see real change in network security until hackers shutdown high profile and much needed businesses like Netflix and Amazon Prime Video for more than a few days. Then politicians will get involved. And maybe a small bump up in birthrates the following year.

RE: Water System Hack

And people complain about our IT, external access via VPN with randomly generated single use passwords, when ultimately every piece of equipment on our floor is tied to the network.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
P.E. Metallurgy, consulting work welcomed

RE: Water System Hack

3
As someone mentioned recently in another thread;
"The S in IOT stands for security."

Bill
--------------------
Ohm's law
Not just a good idea;
It's the LAW!

RE: Water System Hack

(OP)

RE: Water System Hack

I don't know for sure, but normally a risk assessment or HAZOP should ask if a wrong setpoint for any chemical (by operators error) poses risk for plant staff or the public => if the answer is "yes", there would be a SIL-rated hard limit on the concentration. Unless the hard limit can't be enforced for process reasons (there are conditions where the high dose is neccessary).

This assumes a framework like the EU Machinery Directive and the Seveso-III directive. Not that I'm not an expert in either! Are there similar law/codes in the US?

The German water association, DWA, published guidelines on computer security (DWA-M 1060) for water and wastewater plants. I'm not IT person and havent really read it, appears to be more on the management/systematic approach (risk assessment etc.) side than on concrete technical ideas, though a catalogue of common threats and a catalogue of common threat mitigations are mentioned somewhere. The DWA-M 1060 also ties in with German federal laws regarding security of critical infrastructure.
Does the US have something similar?

RE: Water System Hack

We use setpoint limits. In this case, as the 'poison' was sodium hydroxide, I would assume the control element was sensing pH. If that were the case, I would be surprised if a setpoint limit was not employed, and also no alarm would be triggered. Even if a hacker got in, placed the output in manual and ran at 100% addition rate, there should still be an alarm related to the process value. There should also be some (obvious) indication of deviation from setpoint to process value. That would be standard engineering practice.

Brad Waybright

The more you know, the more you know you don't know.

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (stevenal)

Stuxnet breached an air gap
Well I am not shore that is quit the same, normal hackers and disgruntled former employees does not have the same recourses as the FBI and the Mossad.

I am working from home and through a VCN tunnel, so I am inside the system.
But I could easily shut down the hole factory when ever a felt like it.
I could also find a way of doing it so it would take them a wile to figure it out because they would not expect a "fault" like that.

I always said that when I retire, I'll hack the traffic lights on the main road through the city, a 10 year old could have programmed them better. pc2
They complain that CO2 emissions are so high there, but it is completely impossible to get through the city when there is a lot of traffic without having to stop at every traffic light.auto

Best Regards A

“Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere.“
Albert Einstein

RE: Water System Hack

Here's an idea, program the traffic lights so you must stop at every intersection.

Wate someone's already done that.

Since one of our water plants must take floride out of the water, and the other needs to add floride to the water, what can we do with that?

RE: Water System Hack

Well maybe I will start a crowdfunding and ask people too pay me for letting them pass without stopping at every traffic light. winky smile

I do not think we have that problem here.

Vakin is responsible for the operation of 18 waterworks, of which the largest is Umeå waterworks.
In the Tap Water Competition 2020, Vindeln's water was named one of Sweden's best and Umeå's water received an honorable mention.

Best Regards A.

“Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere.“
Albert Einstein

RE: Water System Hack

It was apparently pretty easy to get Stuxnet across the air-gap. Copies were simply sprinkled around and it was designed to be promiscuous so it spread widely. It was inevitable that it would eventually end up just about everywhere. It was undetected and largely dormant except in the single facility with the network infrastructure that it was looking for. The hardest part of deploying it was to prevent it from being discovered in the first place.

Brad Waybright

The more you know, the more you know you don't know.

RE: Water System Hack

Some years ago a major petro-chemical plant went down for about 4 hours.
The reason?
Someone at a terminal open for the use of employees tried to use a company account to order an adjustable wrench for personal use.
He hadn't done orders on the computer before and made a mistake.
If you accidentally get into the main program and type in a wrench order, strange things happen.
No. It wasn't me.

Bill
--------------------
Ohm's law
Not just a good idea;
It's the LAW!

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (The hardest part of deploying it was to prevent it from being discovered in the first place.)


That's true with so much malware... one of the main issues is... if the 'good' guys are making this stuff... wonder what the 'bad guys' are doing? and, how long before if finds itself in the public domain. I think it's a matter of time.

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Feel any better?

-Dik

RE: Water System Hack

waross... it was a prybar, you wanted?[lol]

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Feel any better?

-Dik

RE: Water System Hack

A USB stick left in a parking lot will defeat an air gap.

RE: Water System Hack

(The hardest part of deploying it was to prevent it from being discovered in the first place.)

Well since it only was allowed to infected three other computers and never did anything with the computer unless it had Siemens Step7 on it, and even then it did no anything just waited for a PLC to turn up that it could infect.
We probably have it on all our PLC:s at work that where installed before 24 June 2012 when it erased itself.

Best Regards A

“Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere.“
Albert Einstein

RE: Water System Hack

(OP)
waross, So he got a "spanner in the works" instead of his adjustable wrench.

RE: Water System Hack

We sometimes force-control the relays manually to see if the machine starts, so you know that you can troubleshoot based on that.
Once when I was younger I was doing such a troubleshooting in a press, and just when I pressed the relay, it became pitch black and the whole factory stopped.

And what I was thinking then ..well .... I do not know if I want to repeat it here ..

But it turned out to be just a normal power outage. lol

Best Regards A

“Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere.“
Albert Einstein

RE: Water System Hack

I'm still wondering what a hole factory is.

RE: Water System Hack

Well we manufacture black holes that's why it goes pitch black sometimes winky smile

Best Regards A

“Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere.“
Albert Einstein

RE: Water System Hack

(OP)
Maybe a sand and gravel pit.
Or a tunnel boring machine?

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (A USB stick left in a parking lot will defeat an air gap.)


Yup... whenever I leave the house with client data, it's on an encryted USB stick... just don't want the embarrassment of losing it... good encryption, not super... I often used to travel to various offices to work...

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Feel any better?

-Dik

RE: Water System Hack

Quote:

I'm still wondering what a hole factory is.
In Canada that would be where Tim Horton's gets their doughnut holes.

As for the wrench IT WASN"T ME.
I did once work at a plant where the assistant manager reviewed all purchase orders and trashcan the whole order if any tools were ordered.
I still remember that WT111m is the catalog number for a Stakon crimping tool.
Had it for years.

Bill
--------------------
Ohm's law
Not just a good idea;
It's the LAW!

RE: Water System Hack

and the age old question, "What's the speed of dark?"

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Feel any better?

-Dik

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (In Canada that would be where Tim Horton's gets their doughnut holes.)


Now, that's heavy...

Rather than think climate change and the corona virus as science, think of it as the wrath of God. Feel any better?

-Dik

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (thebard3 (Computer))

I think it's unlikely there was any real public health risk. The 'poison' was sodium hydroxide. I doubt that the levels were high enough to have any lasting health effects if it made it out of the plant, but I'm sure there is real-time monitoring and alarming to take place in the event of this kind of trouble. If it was someone who knew how to circumvent these layers of safety, then I'd say it had to be a disgruntled employee or ex employee. Either way, the culprit is likely to be identified quickly.

Agree that it is unlikely to add enough sodium hydroxide. The pumps that are used to inject chemicals such as sodium hydroxide will not have the capacity that will allow a massive amount of chemical to be injected. I would expect the pumps to have a 10:1 turndown and you would want the pump to be operating in the mid-range of capacity. It is also common to have a pH sensor to monitor the pH.

However, there is one area of concern at water treatment plants. Many water treatment plants in the US add fluoride which is an extremely poisonous substance. The normal amount added is just 1 mg/L. It is easy to overdose fluoride and there is typically no affordable sensor that monitors fluoride.

Overfeeding Fluoride



RE: Water System Hack

"However, there is one area of concern at water treatment plants. Many water treatment plants in the US add fluoride which is an extremely poisonous substance. The normal amount added is just 1 mg/L. It is easy to overdose fluoride and there is typically no affordable sensor that monitors fluoride."

on one hand, this is knowledge that someone who really wants to harm people might not have.
On the other hand, water plant operators/designers should think more about hacking and what would be really dangerous

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (MartinLe)

this is knowledge that someone who really wants to harm people might not have.

Except that now it's on the internet.

RE: Water System Hack

I would like to know what is a "normal power outage"?

We don't have those. I know because one of my tasks is to investigate power outages.

We have the animal, the tree, the bad driver, wind, lighting, the overload, equipment failure, dig in, that is most of them. But no normal, unless it could be a planned outage.

Or maybe I don't accept the normal as a power outage.

I was not aware how much fluoride was the wrong level, but that Cl gas can be a problem.

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (cranky108)

I would like to know what is a "normal power outage"?
Well in this case "normal" means incoming power from the power supplier Vattenfall (Waterfall) disappearing and not due too something I did smile

Well we have about 3-5 outages per year not shore what the reason is.

Best Regards A

“Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere.“
Albert Einstein

RE: Water System Hack

"Well we have about 3-5 outages per year not shore what the reason is."

That seems excessive to me. We investigate, and look for improvements when customers exceed three outages in a year. That said, a few of these we can't seem to fix. People feeding wild animals under our lines, car crashes, tree trimmers, cable TV and phone contractors, and old underground lines that fail.

I guess we don't accept power outages as "normal". I could add some exceptions here, but that maybe seen as political.

But it does seem that when we are about to do something, like a voltage reading, the heater, or air conditioning will turn on, and everybody jumps.

RE: Water System Hack

Well this is at the factory, we have 2 transformation stations with two different feeds coming from different directions (power stations) same power provider and a third that is like a ring feed.
I live quit near to where I work so when the power goes out at home I know there has been a power outages at work to.
Sometimes it is the whole factory and sometimes half depending on what's gone wrong at the power stations.
Mostly it's due to trees short circuits in air lines going somewhere else, our power lines are in the ground.
The community especially outside town have more power outages thane we have at work.
Especially in the winter.

Best Regards A



“Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere.“
Albert Einstein

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (bimr)

However, there is one area of concern at water treatment plants. Many water treatment plants in the US add fluoride which is an extremely poisonous substance. The normal amount added is just 1 mg/L. It is easy to overdose fluoride and there is typically no affordable sensor that monitors fluoride.

There are ISE (Ion Selective Electrodes) for fluoride. I installed one several years ago.

RE: Water System Hack

Fl, toxic? The aim level is 0.5-1mg/l total. In most cases this means that the addition is much less than that.
Most people tolerate 4mg/l for long term with minimal effects (dark spots on teeth), though some people (and age groups) are more sensitive.
Toxicity is 1mg Fl/kg of body mass, which is a lot.
There are plenty of places in the US where natural drinking water is 2-2.5, and in Asia I have seen values as high as 8.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
P.E. Metallurgy, consulting work welcomed

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (cranky108 (Electrical))

I would like to know what is a "normal power outage"?

We don't have those. I know because one of my tasks is to investigate power outages.

We have the animal, the tree, the bad driver, wind, lighting, the overload, equipment failure, dig in, that is most of them. But no normal, unless it could be a planned outage.

Or maybe I don't accept the normal as a power outage.

I was not aware how much fluoride was the wrong level, but that Cl gas can be a problem.

An up to date or modern water treatment plant will have a standby generator. If the water utility is up to date, there will be no power outage.

RE: Water System Hack

Quote (EdStainless (Materials))

Fl, toxic? The aim level is 0.5-1mg/l total. In most cases this means that the addition is much less than that.
Most people tolerate 4mg/l for long term with minimal effects (dark spots on teeth), though some people (and age groups) are more sensitive.
Toxicity is 1mg Fl/kg of body mass, which is a lot.
There are plenty of places in the US where natural drinking water is 2-2.5, and in Asia I have seen values as high as 8.

Recently, epidemiological studies have suggested that fluoride is a human developmental neurotoxicant that reduces measures of intelligence in children, placing it into the same category as toxic metals (lead, methylmercury, arsenic) and polychlorinated biphenyls.

Toxicity of fluoride: critical evaluation of evidence for human developmental neurotoxicity in epidemiological studies, animal experiments and in vitro analyses - US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

HHS’ proposed recommendation of 0.7 milligrams of fluoride per liter of water replaces the current recommended range of 0.7 to 1.2 milligrams. This updated recommendation is based on recent EPA and HHS scientific assessments to balance the benefits of preventing tooth decay while limiting any unwanted health effects. These scientific assessments will also guide EPA in making a determination of whether to lower the maximum amount of fluoride allowed in drinking water, which is set to prevent adverse health effects.

EPA and HHS Announce New Scientific Assessments and Actions on Fluoride

My entire career has been in water and wastewater. My professional opinion is that fluoride would be the most critical hack and that overfeeding of fluoride has accidentally occurred in the past. I am not familiar with any occurrences of overdosing with sodium hydroxide causing significant problems with water quality.

The fluoride action network lists the following failures of fluoride control.

2019 – Newport, Rhode Island

A fluoridation chemical overfeed occurred, increasing fluoride levels in the public drinking water to at least 2.16mg/L; three times higher than the already excessive levels found in artificially fluoridated water. City and Water Department officials waited over a month to notify residents.

2019 – Sandy, Utah

A snowstorm led to a fluoridation overfeed that resulted in high fluoride concentrations dissolving piping leading to elevated levels of manganese, aluminum, iron, arsenic, copper, & lead. Babies & pregnant women among those sickened as reported in news which estimates 3k homes and several schools affected. Slow city response.

2016 – Mohawk Valley, New York

4,000 gallons of fluoridation chemical leaked out of its storage tank into a holding tank causing thousands of dollars in damage, endangering water employees and first responders.

2016 – Patton Borough, Pennsylvania

According to Borough water engineer David Cunningham, of Keller Engineers, “because Patton has older water lines, the added fluorosilicic acid seemed to be loosening sediment and causing corrosion. ‘The fear is that you’re going to raise lead and copper levels,’ he said. The notice added that the fluoride also seemed to be increasing the water’s iron content.”

2016 – Parsons City, Kansas

Fluoridation chemical caused equipment failure and $50,000 worth of damage to water treatment infrastructure due to corrosiveness.

2016 – Attica, Indiana

Fluoridation was discontinued after the Water Superintendent found the fluoride chemical completely ate through a large concrete and steel “T” pipe at the injection point, causing a pipe break in the water distribution system.

2015 – Marysville, Michiga

1,400 gallons of fluoridation chemical leaked from its storage tank and ate through the secondary containment tank, destroying the treatment plant’s concrete floor, pipes, and costing $150,000 in repairs and upgrades.

2014 – Danville, Virginia

Eleven people, including first responders, were hospitalized after water treatment employees accidentally mixed fluoridation chemicals with hydrochloric acid, causing a toxic vapor. Nearby residents and businesses were evacuated.

2014 – Dungog, Australia

Fluoridation chemical leaked into the ecosystem surrounding water treatment plant for 5 months, costing community $187,000 in fines and $3.6 million in upgrades to facilities.

2012 – North Salt Lake City, Utah

Water treatment employee hospitalized after accidentally mixing fluoridation chemical with another treatment chemical, causing a chemical reaction that created toxic fumes.

2012 – West Hartford, Connecticut

A mechanical failure caused 10 gallons of fluoridation chemicals to spill at the water treatment plant.

2012 – Kalamazoo, Michigan

An overfeed of fluoridation chemicals to the drinking water occurred and residents were not notified for 6 months. Representatives of the water facility say a fluoridation overfeed also occurred in 2006.

2012 – Martinsville, Virginia

Thousands of fish were killed and a $16,000 fine levied after fluoridation chemicals spilled into Jones Creek after an overflow at the plant caused the additive to drain into a sewage discharge pipe directly into the creek.

2011 – Rock Island, Illinois

Fluoridation chemicals spilled from an overflow while a tanker truck delivered them to a water treatment plant. The spill ate through tar and concrete outside of the plant.

2011 – Mount Airy, North Carolina

A valve malfunction caused an overfeed of fluoridation chemicals into the drinking water for residents and three schools.

2010 – Asheboro, North Carolina

Mechanical error at water treatment plant caused overfeed of fluoridation chemicals into the drinking water system of over 220 households. 60 gallons of the chemical was released at once, rather than over a 24-hour period as expected.

2009 – Brisbane, Australia

Equipment malfunction at water treatment plant caused massive overfeed of fluoridation chemicals, increasing the levels to 30ppm. 4000 households were impacted as the chemical seeped into the water supply for at least 4 hours.

2009 – Chesterfield, Missouri

200 gallons of fluoridation chemicals spilled from a ruptured containment tank in the water treatment plant, sending a truck driver and water employees to the hospital.

2009 – Conway, Arkansas

Fluoridation was stopped after a 42-inch water pipe corroded to the point of failure in October, necessitating the shutdown of a portion of Conway Corp.’s water treatment plant that was just built 3 years prior. The pipe corroded because the fluoride injection port was mounted too close to a chlorine injection port, resulting in a highly acidic concentration of the two chemicals. Conway Corp.’s customers were never informed by the city-owned utility service of the change to their drinking water. Arnold apologized on behalf of the corporation in a letter to be distributed to customers this week.

2008 – Germania Springs, Alabama

A fluoride tank at the pumping station emptied its entire contents into the drinking water supply increasing fluoride levels to a reported 20 mg/L. Several residents reported feeling ill.

2007 – Parleys Creek, Utah

2,000 gallons of fluoridation chemicals leaked from an overflowing containment tank at the Mountain Dell water treatment plant into Parley’s Creek, causing first responders to evacuate a nearby dog park. Fire authority spokesperson said it likely killed fish and sickened deer that drank from the creek.

2005 – Fitchburg and Westminster, Massachusetts

750 gallons of fluoridation chemicals leaked from their containment tank sending three water treatment employees to the hospital after coming in direct contact with the chemical. The leak occurred after a water employee tripped over a corroded pipe leading to the fluoridation tank.

2005 – York County, Pennsylvania

600 gallons of fluoridation chemicals overfed into the public’s drinking water, increasing levels to at least 24ppm for several large municipalities in York and Cumberland Counties.

2005 – Melbourne, Australia

A ton of liquid fluoridation chemicals leaked from a containment tank at a water treatment plant into the nearby Cardinia Creek.

2003 – Marlboro, Massachusetts

A mechanical malfunction caused an accidental overfeed of fluoride went undetected for at least two hours into the drinking water, causing a fluoride level of 24 ppm, a significant change to the PH making it more acidic, and causing state environmental officials to warn residents to not use drinking water without flushing their system first.

2002 – Dublin, California

Malfunction with fluoridation equipment produces fluoride levels as high as 200 ppm at local business. 23 people are poisoned. The primary symptoms are stomach pain and vomiting.

2002 – Macomb County, Michigan

Homes had to be evacuated after 3,000 gallons of fluoridation chemicals spilled.

2001 – Fort Wayne, Indiana

A valve malfunction caused 6,000 gallons of corrosive fluoridation chemicals to spill out of it’s tank and into a sewer drain for two hours before first responders could stop it, sending four water employees to the hospital with headaches, chest pains, sore eyes, and respiratory problems from the fumes.

2001 – Camdenton, Missouri

A tanker truck carrying fluoridation chemicals spilled six barrels of it on the highway, closing the road until the hazardous waste could be contained and cleaned by first responders.

2000 – Charleston, South Carolina

Water treatment employee instructed truck driver to unload the fluoridation chemical into the wrong storage tank, causing a reaction that melted the tank, causing 20,000 gallons of the caustic mix to spill and eat through the containment berm into the nearby ecosystem and causing $200,000 dollars damage to the treatment plant.

2000 – Coos Bay, Oregon

Water treatment workers allowed a tank holding fluoridation chemicals to overflow, causing 400 gallons of the highly acidic additive to flow onto the floor and into a drain the led to the sewer and eventually the sewage treatment plant several blocks away. Once in the sewage system, it caused 3.5 million gallons of partially treated sewage to spew into Coos Bay for four days. Making matters worse, the high concentrations of fluoride killed the bacteria-munching organisms in the sewage prior to it leaking into the bay, making it more toxic.

2000 – Norfolk and Wakefield, Massachusetts

Error with fluoridation equipment leads to fluoride levels as high as 23 ppm. Local health officials claim no one is affected, however news reports interview at least one resident with diarrhea and dizziness.


ADDITIONAL REPORTED ACUTE POISONINGS
FROM FLUORIDATION

AUGUST 1993 – Poplarville, Mississippi: Fluoride levels at local restaurant reach 48 ppm, perhaps as high as 200 ppm, after accident with town fluoridation equipment. At least 34 of the restaurant’s patrons are poisoned. A study in Public Health Reports finds that “The most common symptoms were nausea (97%), vomiting (68%), diarrhea (65%), and abdominal cramps (53%); 14 people (41%) reported headaches, four (12%) reported burning sensations in the throat or chest, and one person reported excessive salivation. None recalled an abnormal taste to the water.” (SOURCE: Penman 1997)

JULY 1993 — Chicago, Illinois: 3 dialysis patients die and five additional patients suffer allergic reactions after a malfunction in the fluoride filtration systems allows an unspecified level of fluoride to enter into the dialysis units. (SOURCE: Carton 1994 | Chicago Sun Times 1993 | FDA Health Alert)

MAY 1992 — Hooper Bay, Alaska: One man dies, one man is airlifted to hospital in critical condition and 260 are poisoned. It is the largest reported fluoridation accident to date. Symptoms include “nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, loss of appetite, headache, weakness, itching, numbness or tingling of an extremity, shortness of breath (and) fatigue.” (SOURCE: News Tribune 1992 | Gessner 1994)

FEBRUARY 1992 — Rice Lake, Wisconsin: Residents vomiting. Centers for Disease Control state that 150 water consumers potentially at risk. A pump feed thought to have lasted for two days leads to fluoride levels as high as 20 ppm. The Wisconsin State Dental Director states, “To be harmful, exposure would have to have been about 225 ppm.” This statement is incorrect, as serious adverse symptoms have been reported as low as 50 ppm, and death has occurred at 150 ppm. (SOURCE: Carton 1994)

JULY 1991 — Portage, Michigan: Approximately 40 children develop abdominal pains, sickness, vomiting and diarrhea at an arts and crafts show at school. One of the city’s fluoride injector pumps failed. Fluoride levels not determined at the time, but later test at 92 ppm. (SOURCE: Carton 1994 | See study discussing this accident)

OCTOBER 1990 — Westby, Wisconsin: Fluoride levels reach as high as 150 ppm after fluoridation malfunction. Four families suffer a week of diarrhea, upset stomach and burning throats. The water utility supervisor estimates the fluoride level to be ten times normal since it had burned his mouth. The elevated fluoride levels corrode the copper off the pipes in area homes, producing copper concentrations 70 times higher than the EPA recommended limit. (SOURCE: Carton 1994)

MARCH 1986 – New Haven, Connecticut – Of the 312 persons interviewed four days after the accident, in the 127 households at risk, 18% report symptoms of abdominal cramping, nausea, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, diaphoresis (profuse sweating), and fever. Others experience rashes and irritation from bathing and washing dishes. The fluoride levels peak at 51 ppm. (SOURCE: Carton 1994 | See study discussing this accident)

OCTOBER 1981 – Jonesboro, Maine – 57 students, teachers and principal are taken to hospital after an accident with school fluoridation equipment. 38 are administered regurgitants to make them vomit the fluoride, and milk to counteract the poison. Two are admitted to the hospital for several hours for fast heartbeat. Other symptoms include nausea, abdominal pain and vomiting. On December 1, 1981, Jonesboro citizens vote 43-2 not to reinstate fluoridation at the school, and to charge the Dept. of Human Services for the emergency room bill of $1,137.24. (SOURCE: Bevis 1981 | The Maine Paper 1981 )

AUGUST 1980 – Vermont – Accident with school water fluoridation equipment leads to fluoride levels as high as 1,041 ppm and causes an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness, headache, dizziness, and diarrhea at a farmers market. (SOURCE: Vogt 1982)

NOVEMBER 1979 – Annapolis, Maryland – Operator fails to close valve of fluoride container; causing 1,000 gallons of fluoride to be dumped into the water supply. 1 dialysis patient dies, 1 suffers a heart attack, 1 develops long-term brain damage, while others experience nausea, hypotension (low blood pressure), chest pain or pressure, diarrhea, itching, flushing, vomiting (blood tinged), weakness, dyspnea (breathing difficulty), profuse sweating, shakiness, localized numbness, abdominal cramping, and headache. Others not on dialysis experience nausea, headache, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and dizziness. Pepsi Cola files suit for $1.6 million for damage to product, while a surviving dialysis patient with resulting brain damage sues for $210 million. (SOURCE: Bevis 1981 | Evening Capital 1982)

MAY 1979 – Island Falls, Maine – Fluoride machine allows extra fluoride into water system while motor head is being changed. “The exact water fluoride level was not ascertained although a water sample at a manufacturing plant was greater than 10 ppm.” 5 people suffer gastrointestinal illness.” (SOURCE: Bevis 1981)

NOVEMBER 1978 – Los Lunas, New Mexico – Faulty electric relay switch causes concentrated fluoride to be pumped into water system. 34 people experience acute fluoride poisoning. Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, muscle twitching and excess salivation. (SOURCE: Bevis 1981 | Hoffman 1980)

NOVEMBER 1977 – Harbor Springs, Michigan – A tree cut down by a contractor falls on power lines controlling the water department’s electrical signal lines… Approximately 189 lbs. of fluoride is accidentally pumped into the city’s water system.. Four people experience nausea or vomiting and weakness. Had it not been an off-season for this resort town more could have been poisoned. (SOURCE: Bevis 1981)



RE: Water System Hack

Quote (djs (Electrical))

There are ISE (Ion Selective Electrodes) for fluoride. I installed one several years ago.

The key word is "affordable". pH controls systems are relatively inexpensive. In addition to the fluoride probe, you have the control system and maintenance of it. Most of the water treatment plants that I have seen monitor fluoride by analyzing water samples periodically.

RE: Water System Hack

Nice list! I'll trot it out next time our local idiots start trying to put in our city water again.

Keith Cress
kcress - http://www.flaminsystems.com

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