Is there any literature that supports the notion that a pipe conveying stormwater outfalling to a water body must be oriented perpendicular to the body of water? This seems to be common practice, but I am seeking explicit design guidelines that state an outfall pipe and appurtenant structures (i.e. endwall) should not be oriented at an angle as it terminates to the water body, which in the specific case I am working with is tidal. Angling a pipe against the flow of the water body would possibly cause maintenance issues with debris collecting at the outfall, so is this more of a maintenance issue than a design one?
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