I have thought about this for awhile and I don't understand it. So, let's say you have generation spread out over a large region and there is a disturbance in the system that causes one of the generators to be at a lower or high frequency than the rest of the generators in the system and the controls don't work to bring that generator back up to normal frequency. What happens? I have a hard time understanding this because in my mind if a generator is operating at a different frequency than the rest of the system, that generator or island around the generator is effectively isolated from the rest of the system from a power flow perspective. The rest of the grid is going to try to motor or add generation to it as the phase angle of the different frequency generation slips around the rest of the grid. I just have a hard time grasping why a generator can operate for example at 59 hz while the rest of the grid is humming along at 60 hz.
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