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Energy Conservation Measures - Calculations

Energy Conservation Measures - Calculations

Energy Conservation Measures - Calculations

Newbie on this site, looking for a forum to share and receive Energy Conservation Measure (ECM) information. As an Energy Engineer at my work place I have to perform Level 1 AHSRAE Energy Audits on 25% of the area of all the Goal Subject facilities on the center every year. With over 6 million square feet total on the campus that means I have to audit over 1.5 million square feet per year.

I've been at it for a couple of years and built up a spreadsheet (not perfect) with a few calculations for different ECMs that I'd like to share, maybe you may find some useful at your facilities. Bear in mind these are only estimates for use in a Level 1 Energy Audit because there isn't enough time to build an energy model on every facility when you have to do so many in a short time.

I'm also hoping that if you have a more precise method of calculating that you'd share it on the Forum.

Finally, if you have some additional ECM's that you'd like to share that would be appreciated and useful for all Energy Engineers that have to perform Energy Audits. We can help each other to propose energy conservation measures that will reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas creation, making the world a better place for all.

Let me know if you have any questions about the ECM, I can post more information if there is an interest in any particular one.

The spreadsheet has a Table of Contents and most pages have a link back to the table of Contents, just click the links to navigate around.

At the end of the spreadsheet there is a place to gather all the ECMs you found for one facility and it will automatically total them up for you. I save all mine in a Word document and cut and paste them in that page when I'm done. Then the final sheet calculates the savings in EUI if all the ECMs are implemented.

RE: Energy Conservation Measures - Calculations

Campus? A college or university of very old and very new buildings with an underground ? systems of very old and very new steam pipes and A/C units?

Or a "very new" business complex?

RE: Energy Conservation Measures - Calculations

Can you provide a brief rundown of what an audit consists of?

Keith Cress
kcress - http://www.flaminsystems.com

RE: Energy Conservation Measures - Calculations

racookpe1978, I apologize for the confusion, I probably could have used a different word. I was thinking of the definition from Merriam Webster, #3. I'm trying to keep it general so I don't break any posting rules.

"Definition of campus

1 : the grounds and buildings of a university, college, or school

2 : a university, college, or school viewed as an academic, social, or spiritual entity

3 : grounds that resemble a campus ·a hospital campus
·a landscaped corporate campus

In my case, the "campus" is Kennedy Space Center, but I didn't think using the word "Center" would be understood.

RE: Energy Conservation Measures - Calculations


There are several definitions of an Energy Audit.

Executive Order 13693 (https://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/executive-order-13...) only requires government facilities to do a level 1. A level 2 or 3 is more involved.

Wikipedia has a brief summary as follows (edited for brevity)

Credited to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_audit

"Industrial energy audits

Increasingly in the last several decades, industrial energy audits have exploded as the demand to lower increasingly expensive energy costs and move towards a sustainable future have made energy audits greatly important. Their importance is magnified since energy spending is a major expense to industrial companies (energy spending accounts for ~ 10% of the average manufacturer's expenses). This growing trend should only continue as energy costs continue to rise.

While the overall concept is similar to a home or residential energy audit, industrial energy audits require a different skillset. Weatherproofing and insulating a house are the main focus of residential energy audits. For industrial applications, it is the HVAC, lighting, and production equipment that use the most energy, and hence are the primary focus of energy audits.

Types of energy audit[edit]

The term energy audit is commonly used to describe a broad spectrum of energy studies ranging from a quick walk-through of a facility to identify major problem areas to a comprehensive analysis of the implications of alternative energy efficiency measures sufficient to satisfy the financial criteria of sophisticated investors. Numerous audit procedures have been developed for non-residential (tertiary) buildings (ASHRAE;[12] IEA-EBC Annex 11;[13] Krarti, 2000). Audit is required to identify the most efficient and cost-effective Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) or Measures (ECMs). Energy conservation opportunities (or measures) can consist in more efficient use or of partial or global replacement of the existing installation.

When looking to the existing audit methodologies developed in IEA EBC Annex 11, by ASHRAE and by Krarti (2000), it appears that the main issues of an audit process are:
The analysis of building and utility data, including study of the installed equipment and analysis of energy bills;
The survey of the real operating conditions;
The understanding of the building behavior and of the interactions with weather, occupancy and operating schedules;
The selection and the evaluation of energy conservation measures;
The estimation of energy saving potential;
The identification of customer concerns and needs.

Common types/levels of energy audits are distinguished below, although the actual tasks performed and level of effort may vary with the consultant providing services under these broad headings. The only way to ensure that a proposed audit will meet your specific needs is to spell out those requirements in a detailed scope of work. Taking the time to prepare a formal solicitation will also assure the building owner of receiving competitive and comparable proposals.

Generally, four levels of analysis can be outlined (ASHRAE):
Level I – Walk-through audit: Preliminary analysis made to assess building energy efficiency to identify not only simple and low-cost improvements but also a list of energy conservation measures (ECMs, or energy conservation opportunities, ECOs) to orient the future detailed audit. This inspection is based on visual verifications, study of installed equipment and operating data and detailed analysis of recorded energy consumption collected during the benchmarking phase;

Walk-through (or) preliminary audit[edit]

The preliminary audit (alternatively called a simple audit, screening audit or walk-through audit) is the simplest and quickest type of audit. It involves minimal interviews with site-operating personnel, a brief review of facility utility bills and other operating data, and a walk-through of the facility to become familiar with the building operation and to identify any glaring areas of energy waste or inefficiency.

Typically, only major problem areas will be covered during this type of audit. Corrective measures are briefly described, and quick estimates of implementation cost, potential operating cost savings, and simple payback periods are provided. A list of energy conservation measures (ECMs, or energy conservation opportunities, ECOs) requiring further consideration is also provided. This level of detail, while not sufficient for reaching a final decision on implementing proposed measure, is adequate to prioritize energy-efficiency projects and to determine the need for a more detailed audit...

So, from a Level 1 viewpoint, we try to propose ECMs, but we have to quantify the potential savings. "implementation cost, potential operating cost savings, and simple payback period". How to calculate these numbers? That's the point of this thread. If we can come up with reasonable calculation methods, we can create Projects that result in energy conservation that pays for itself (simple payback) in a reasonable number of years.

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