Hi ! for seismic loading, it is known that there are two type of loadings that affects the structure: inertial and kinematic loadings. Inertial loadings are inherent to the response of the structure. Kinematic loading is based on free field deformations (soil deformation due to the earthquake loading). This kinematic loading add an additional loading to the foundation, which is more critical for pile foundations (add additional loading in the pile which produces more bending and consequent moments). My question is: how do you know if the soil will deform and create kinematic loading in pile foundations? Is any rule of thumb in order to consider kinematic loading in the pile analysis? Also, if kinematic loading is considered, how do you quantify it? or do you need any other considerations?
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