In earlier versions (pre 2005) of AASHTO LFRD Bridge Design Specifications, torsion was included in the determination of beta and theta in the "resistance" equations for epsilon_s. In the most recent Bridge Specs (2012), torsion was not included in the calculation of epsilon_s (Eqs 18.104.22.168.2-1, 22.214.171.124.2-2 and 126.96.36.199.2-3). However, in the current Canadian Standard, also using compression field method, torsion was included in similar equations.
Why are these two standards, both using the same method, treating combined shear and torsion differently ?
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