The following assumes a metric thread form according to ISO 68-1 ISO general purpose screw threads -- Basic profile -- Part 1: Metric screw threads and ISO 724 ISO general-purpose metric screw threads -- Basic dimensions. Also, it is assumed that all assembly torque is used to overcome friction and develop joint preload, so the joint members must be elastic and there must not be any prevailing torque.
MA = FM (0.16 · P + 0.58 · d2 · μG + μK · DKm/2)
MA is the assembly torque in N m FM is the preload in kN P is the pitch in mm d2 is the pitch diameter in mm μG is the thread friction coefficient μK is the bearing friction coefficient DKm = (dw +dh)/2 dw is the bearing surface outer diameter in mm dh is the hole diameter in mm
The target preload FM usually is chosen as a certain percentage of the screw yield stress.
FM = ν · σM · A0
ν is the percentage of yield stress chosen (90% is standard) σM is stress due to combined tension and torsion A0 is the relevant shank cross-sectional area (Full, reduced, or threaded shank)