Drapes here from the UK
You need either the ASHRAE Guide (fundamentals) or the CIBSE Guide book C. These have tabulated flow rate through various types of pipework with x-y coordinates of pipe size, flow rate, pressure drop, velocity. These use the D'Arcy and Colebrook and White equations.
In the UK we dont tend to have the large chilled water distribution systems that you might have in for instance the USA, however there will be practical limits based on for instance standard available pipe size. In the UK we can get hold of 150 and 200mm dia pipe. Any larger and its special order. A 150mm pipe could carry 36l/sec of water at a pressure drop of 250Pa/m. This would equate to about 900kW of cooling with a 6 degree celcius temp drop.(i.e. 6-12 flow and return.)
Financial restraints would possibly limit the size of chiller plant, pipework and insulation costs. We don't have many systems above this sort of capability, and probably we would tend to de-centralise to control the practicalities of such systems.
In the UK with the advent of VRV(variable refrigerant volume inverter driven compresser systems), we would decentralise and make use of the ability of the systems to provide heat recovery from areas requiring cooling to those requiring heating. I believe these systems are scarce in the USA probably due to the much warmer climate and reduced need for heating???
See DAIKIN or MITSUBISHI air conditioning foe more info on this type of system.