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Design criteria for composite tail rotor blade

Design criteria for composite tail rotor blade

(OP)
Hi everyone,

Coul you please help me with getting through requirements for composite tail rotor blades? I know that the criteria adresses subjects like:
-ultimate load capacity (Q: what conditionas are considered as ultimate? max RPM + 1.5 x external aerodynamic loads ?)
-impact damage (Q: what is the impact energy? could it be designer for BVID criteria only, orany other manufacturing defects?)
-fatigue evaluation (Q; can it be covered by, for example, GAG cycle + High-Cycle Fatigue)?
-residual strength

I would really appreciate any handbooks that covers this subject.


LukaszSz. Poland, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering : MEchanical Engineering. BsC - 2013

RE: Design criteria for composite tail rotor blade

Civilian response, no formal expertise claimed:

1. A tail rotor should not break under any foreseeable circumstance.

1a. Foreseeable circumstances include navigating below treetop level in a jungle, breaking trees as you go. See "Chicken Hawk" by Robert Mason.

Mike Halloran
Pembroke Pines, FL, USA

RE: Design criteria for composite tail rotor blade

Have you looked at FAR 27 and 29? There might also be some Advisory Circulars for rotorcraft that may have some useful info. All available on the FAA web site.

RE: Design criteria for composite tail rotor blade

Have you even done a websearch? there's: OH-58 COMPOSITE MAIN ROTOR BLADE PRELIMINARY DESIGN INVESTIGATION which seems to be pretty relevant. While not many hits included tree strike requirements, the other design requirements are covered in a number of hits in the websearch I got.

TTFN (ta ta for now)
I can do absolutely anything. I'm an expert! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKorP55Aqvg
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RE: Design criteria for composite tail rotor blade

(OP)
Hello, thanks for all replies, I've digg into FAA's AC and found the AC27. The interested section qouted below:

Correct me if I'm wrong, but the design loads = ultimate loads = 1.05 designed RPM speed? ANd the additional Fitting Factor of 1.15 is applied to the attachment area?

AC 27.401. AUXILIARY ROTOR ASSEMBLIES

CODE --> 27-1B

Explanation.
(1) For rotorcraft equipped with auxiliary rotors, normally called tail rotors, an
endurance test is required by " 27.923, and structural strength substantiation is
required. Section 27.401(b) specifically refers to structural strength substantiation of
detachable blade systems for centrifugal loads resulting from maximum design rotor
RPM.
(2) The rotor blade structure must have sufficient strength to withstand not only
aerodynamic loads generated on the blade surface, but also inertial loads arising from
centrifugal, coriolis, gyroscopic, and vibratory effects produced by this blade movement.
Sufficient stiffness and rigidity must be designed into the blades to prevent excessive
deformation and to ensure that the blades will maintain the desired aerodynamic
characteristics. As a design objective, the structural strength requirements should be
met with the minimum material. Excess blade weight imposes extra centrifugal loads

that may increase the operating stress levels. Blade weight and strength should be
optimized. Even though a structural strength analysis for the blade design loads is
required, a flight load survey and fatigue analysis are also required by " 27.571.
(3) Section 27.1509 defines the design rotor speed as that providing a
5 percent margin beyond the rotor operating speed limits.
b. Procedures.
(1) The endurance tests prescribed by "" 27.923 and 27.927 require achieving
certain speeds, power, and control displacement for the auxiliary (tail) rotor as well as
the main rotor. The parts must be serviceable at the conclusion of the tests.
(2) Structural substantiation of the auxiliary (tail) rotor is required to ensure
integrity for the minimum and maximum design rotor speeds and the maximum design
rotor thrust in the positive and negative direction. Thrust capability of the rotor should
offset the main rotor torque at maximum power as required by " 27.927(b).
(i) The maximum and minimum operating rotor speed, power-off, is
95 percent of the maximum design speed and 105 percent of the minimum design
speed, respectively.
(ii) The rotor operating speed limits shown during the official
FAA/AUTHORITY flight tests must include the noted 5 percent margin with respect to
the design speeds.
(iii) The auxiliary rotor generally has a positive and negative pitch limit that
ensures adequate directional control throughout the operating range of the rotorcraft.
The power-off rotor speed limits are generally broader than the power-on rotor speed
limits because of the required autorotational rotor speed characteristics. Thus, the
auxiliary rotor design conditions concern the maximum and minimum design rotor
speeds in conjunction with the maximum positive or negative pitch thrust, as
appropriate. Thrust capability and precone angle of the rotor, if any, will significantly
influence the rotor design loads. The variations in rotor design features and an example
of substantiation would be too lengthy to include here. However, ANC-9, “Aircraft
Propeller Handbook” contains principles that may be applied to tail rotor designs. Tail
rotors may be considered a special propeller design.
(iv) Bearings are generally used in the tail rotor installation to allow
flapping and feathering motion of the blades. The bearing manufacturer’s ratings of
these bearings must not be exceeded. Bearings generally used in main and tail rotors
are classified as ABEC Class 3, 5, or 7. Class 7 is the highest quality presently
available. Satisfactory completion of the endurance tests of "" 27.923 and 27.927 is a
means of proving that use of a particular bearing is satisfactory.


AC 27-1B 9/30/99
(v) The analysis must include appropriate special factors, casting factors,
bearing factors, and fitting factors prescribed by "" 27.619, 27.621, 27.623, and 27.625,
respectively. The fitting factor of 1.15 must be applied in the analysis of the tail rotor
installation. 

LukaszSz. Poland, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering : MEchanical Engineering. BsC - 2013

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