thin wall piping thin wall piping BradSmith (Mechanical) (OP) 4 Oct 13 16:35 dear Friends, How can I deal with high temperature duct system(D/t>100) in caesar II? Which one of software answer is true and which one is wrong? Is there any reference for this kind of problems? Regards, RE: thin wall piping C2it (Petroleum) 7 Oct 13 03:45 The beam element model used by Caesar II is not appropriate to very thin shells where local flexibility domonates. Also, B31 type stress intensification factors cannot be relied upon above D/t=100. You should consider using FE-Pipe or similar software that uses a shell element model.