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Ultrasonic Transducer Design Question

Ultrasonic Transducer Design Question

(OP)
Hello. I'm interested in learning about trasducer design and engineering. I don't have the means to purchase any text books or other publications. Do any of you know of any good resources?

I'm specifically interested in learning how to design transducers optimized for generating cavitations for cleaning purpose -- and destroying microorganisms. I've done a lot of reading on the internet and have learned some of the fundamental concepts, but I still have a variety of rather specific questions. To list a few:

1. What are the performance implications of increasing or decreasing the size or thickness of the ceramic disks within the ultrasonic tranducer? How is the optimal size, thickness, or shape calculated? Is it necessary to adjust the size, thickness, and shape in order to optimize the ceramic material in the transducer for the given application or, for example, can we design around a predetermined shape by merely adjusting the size and thickness to achieve the optimal design?

2. Do they have to be flat or can they be curved or ring shaped? Would having any shape other than flat increase the strain to the point of causing a fracture?

3. I believe having a smaller sonotrode would increase the energy density and thus increase the amplitude of sound pressure. A booster resonant at the operating frequency would also increase the amplitude. Having a high amplitude with a low frequency (i.e., 10kHz) would increase the size of the "bubbles" and thus the cavitation intensity. Are these statements accurate?

4. Is there a formula or procedure for calculating the power requirements of a transducer? I realize this isn't as simple as looking solely at the transducer, but an analysis of its immediate environment may also be necessary to achieve the desired effect. What if the transducer's sonotrode is ring shaped to allow a complete 360 degree contact around a 1 foot stretch of titanium 24" nominal pipe size?

I appreciate any new information. Please feel free to also recommend new resources (preferably ones readily available on the internet). Thanks!

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