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Metal and Metallurgy engineering FAQ

Weldability of Steels

Carbon Equivalent Equations for Weldability of Steels
Posted: 15 Jan 05 (Edited 21 Jan 05)

The most common carbon equivalent (CE) formulas to evaluate weldability depends if the metal is an alloy steel or modern carbon steel. Here are both common CE equations;

for low alloy steel, elements are expressed in weight percent amounts;

CIIw = C + Mn/6 + (Cr+Mo+V)/5 + (Ni+Cu)/15


for modern low carbon steels or microalloy steels, elements are expressed in weight percent amounts;

Ceq = C + Si/25 + (Mn+Cr)/16 + (Cr+Ni+Mo)/20 + V/15


Also from the Welding Journal for low carbon, microalloyed steels, the Ito-Besseyo carbon equivalent

Ceq = C + Si/30 + (Mn+Cu+Cr)/20 + Ni/60 + Mo/15 + V/10 +
5*B   expressed in weight percent amounts

For    CE%<0.14    Excellent weldability, no special precautions necessary
     0.14<CE%<0.45    Martensite is more likely to form, and modest preheats with low hydrogen electrodes become necessary
     CE%>0.45    Extreme complications, weld cracking is very likely, hence preheat in the range 100-400¦C and low hydrogen electrodes are required

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